The páramos biome are considered mountainous ecosystems as they are located at an altitude, which can vary between 3.100 m and 5.000 meters above sea level. The moors are also called mountain scrub regions, because shrubs and bushes predominate.

They are an important biome as they are strategic regions due to their altitude and their climate, which fulfill the function of retaining and regulating water throughout the year. In times of drought, the retained water is gradually contributed by runoff to the lower areas, since these areas are those that generate rivers, streams, aqueducts or streams.

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The moors are located in tropical latitudes. The most representative are the moors:

Páramos of the northern Andes (Andean páramo): They are found in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

  • Ethiopian montane wasteland: Located on the Ethiopian Massif.
  • Wastelands of East Africa: Located in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and in the DR Congo.
  • Páramos de Nueva Guinea: Located in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, they are grasslands and páramos of the Central Mountain Range (New Guinea).
  • Central American moors: Located in Costa Rica and Panama.

Types of wastelands

We can classify the moor into three types according to its temperature and height.

  • Subparamo: It has an average temperature of 10 ℃. We can find various shrubs and low trees on the montane forest area.
  • Paramo: It has an average temperature of about 5 ℃. Here we will find vegetation such as pipes and grasslands.
  • Superparamus: It has an average temperature of 2 ℃. In the alpine areas they are considered tundras. We found lichens, mosses, small open, grasslands and open vegetation.

Moorland animals

Among the animals of the moor we can find pigeons, bears, deer, ducks, amphibians, reptiles, rodents and birds. All have some kind of adaptation to survive the harsh weather conditions during winter.

50% of moorland wetlands and 35% of freshwater species are considered extinct by scientists. That is why it is necessary for humans to get involved in the conservation of the environment and take care of the sanctuaries of life that we have left, change our way of life to avoid the degradation suffered by the moors.

Livestock and intensive agriculture also affect the moors, causing the biome that supplies us with fresh water to suffer.

List of animals of the páramo

antelope lechwe


antelope (Alcelaphinae) is a wide and diverse selection of herbivores of the Bovidae family that are not classified as sheep, cattle or goats (this type of informal designation is sometimes called "garbage dump"). There are approximately 91 species classified as antelope, most of which are native to Africa, but are also found in Asia and parts of the Americas. Approximately 25 species are listed as In danger.


wasp (Hymenoptera) constitutes an enormous diversity of insects, with some 30.000 identified species. We are most familiar with those that are cloaked in bright warning colors, the ones that buzz angrily in groups and threaten us with painful stings, but most wasps are actually solitary, non-sting varieties. And they all do humans far more good by controlling pest insect populations than harm. Unlike of bees, the body of a wasp is smooth and has no hair.

The snowy owl is, unlike other owls, diurnal.

Snowy owl

snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus), also know as arctic owl is great white owl It is a species of large, white owl with a rounded head and yellow eyes. He plumage of these birds varies from all white (some old males) to white with many dark bars and spots (particularly in females and young).

We can see a vulture wake.


vulture (aegypius monk) is a scavenger bird. There are 23 species of vultures in the world, and at least one type of vulture is found on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Is about relatively adaptable birds found in a number of habitats, including the suburbs, but even with that adaptability, 14 species are considered threatened or endangered.


caracal, also known as desert lynx (Caracal caracal), is a medium-sized feline with reddish coats and tufted ears, caracals are incredibly striking animals. They are also the heaviest of the small African cats.