Vertebrate animalsPosted on May 18, 2018 - Last modified: September 8, 2018
Vertebrate animals are all those that have a skeletal system (bones, spine and skull), unlike invertebrate animals they don't have it. They are called vertebrates thanks to their backbone. The vertebral column of vertebrate animals acts as a central axis, separating the bone system into two equal parts, like a mirror.
Although there are vertebrate animals with an external skeleton, such as the turtle, for its shell, the crocodile for its skin, and fish for their scales. All species of vertebrate animals have red blood cells in their blood (which gives it that red color). For us to consider an animal as a vertebrate it must have a skull and a spinal column.
There are cold-blooded vertebrate animals (Reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and warm-blooded vertebrate animals (Birds and mammals). We have 5 different types, mammals, which are the only viviparous animals on this list and we also have birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (All these oviparous). They all share lung breathing.
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Types of vertebrate animals
Vertebrate animals mammals They have fur covered skin, four limbs, they are warm-blooded, as we have mentioned before, they are viviparous (They are born inside the mother's womb) and the females have mammary glands, which they use to suckle their young by giving them milk.
Aerial vertebrate animals (Poultry) have two of their 4 winged limbs and although they all have wings, not all can fly. They are oviparous (hatched from eggs) and warm-blooded. All birds have a characteristic beak and feathers.
Vertebrate animals reptiles They are cold-blooded, oviparous and their skin is scaly (covered with scales), they move by crawling, although some species have legs. They withstand heat very well although some species can survive in icy waters.
Vertebrate animals amphibians They are bare skin and need to be constantly wet, they have four limbs and a tail, that is why their habitat is always near rivers, lakes, etc. Like reptiles they hatch from eggs and are cold blooded.
The fish They have a branchial respiratory system (They breathe through gills), they are cold-blooded and oviparous. Its main characteristic is that they live in water, some species in salt water and others in fresh water.
Reproduction in vertebrate animals
There are three types of reproduction in vertebrate animals; viviparous, oviparous and ovoviviparous.
The viviparous animals are those that are born inside the mother's womb and form a fetus within a structure where they receive oxygen and nutrients until the female calves (gestation time varies according to the species), they feed on breast milk until they grow and they can feed by other means.
The oviparous animals they are gestated inside eggs. The females lay the eggs and their young develop outside the mother's body, while they are gestating inside the egg they feed with the nutrients that the egg itself provides.
The ovoviviparous animals They are a mixture of the two previous ones, the female retains the eggs inside her body until they are ready to hatch, the embryo is formed inside the egg and receives the nutrients from the egg, like the oviparous ones. The eggs hatch when the female expels them from her body, being born already formed and ready to live.
Respiration consists of taking in oxygen, from water or air, and releasing carbon dioxide. There are two types of breathing; the pulmonary and the branchial.
Pulmonary respiration is achieved thanks to the lungs and is present in almost all types of vertebrate animals, its function is to breathe in (swallow oxygen) and breathe out (release carbon dioxide).
The gill is somewhat more complex and is only present in fish. They take in the air, which passes through the gills, which they use as a filter, the gills retain the oxygen particles and filter the water through sheets that are in the gills (Operculum).